From Crusader Kings II Wiki
(Redirected from Legalism)
Jump to: navigation, search
The Technology advancement screen

Alert technology.png Technology represents the military, economic and cultural knowledge of a province.

A county will have a progress level ranging from 0 to 8 for each of the different technologies, and these give a variety of bonuses. Technologies can have decimal increments and give partial effects at intermediate levels.

Rulers of duke-level and higher produce technology points, which may be invested to increase technology in the capital province. In addition, technology spreads automatically from high- to low-technology provinces.

The effects of cultural technology are determined by technology levels in one's capital province. Military and Economic technology are applied province-by-province, except for Military Organization, Siege Technology, and Construction, which are also based on the capital's technology.

Much like construction, technology is a long-time prospect. However, unlike construction, making progress in technology takes decades, and the effects are often small in comparison. On the flip side, researching technology which allows you to construct buildings have a relatively large impact.

List of technologies[edit]

There are in total 18 different technologies, six for each major area: Military, Economy, and Culture. The effects are as follows:

Military.png Military[edit]

  • Light Infantry:
    • increases stats of Light infantry  and Archers  by +7.5%/level (+60% total at level 8).
  • Heavy Infantry:
    • increases stats of Heavy infantry  and Pikemen  by +7.5%/level (+60% total at level 8).
  • Cavalry:
    • increases stats of Light cavalry , Heavy cavalry , Horse archers , and War elephants  by +7.5%/level (+60% total at level 8).
  • Siege Equipment:
    • increases offensive siege speed, and decreases defensive siege speed, by +12.5%/level (+100% total at level 8)
  • Shipbuilding:
    • +10% Galleys/level.
    • levels 1-4 unlock ship-providing buildings.
  • Military Organization:
    • +12.5% supply limit (everywhere) per level.
    • +6.2% Morale/level.
    • +150% Retinue cap/level.
    • level 4 and above remove Pagan defensive attrition.

Economy.png Economy[edit]

  • Castle Infrastructure:
    • unlocks most castle buildings.
    • +6.2% Castle tax income/level (+50% total at level 8).
    • unlocks level 3 and 4 tribe fort buildings (required to upgrade to castle).
  • Town Infrastructure
    • unlocks most town buildings.
    • +6.2% Town tax income/level (+50% total at level 8).
    • unlocks level 3 and 4 tribe town buildings (required to upgrade to city).
  • Church Infrastructure:
    • unlocks most church buildings.
    • +6.2% Church tax income/level (+50% total at level 8).
  • Improved Keeps:
    • unlocks keep and fortification buildings. Note that some buildings require walls of a certain level to be built first before they can be constructed.
  • Trade Practice:
    • unlocks Port buildings.
    • Trade Practice 1 required to upgrade a tribe to a merchant republic.
    • +7.5% Trade Post income/level.
    • Trade Post cap adjusted by -66.7%/-33.3%/0%/+10%/+20%/+30%/+40%/+50%.
  • Construction:
    • reduces construction time and cost by -3.1%/level (-25% at level 8)
    • unlocks all hospital buildings

Culture.png Culture[edit]

  • Noble Customs:
    • increases opinion of feudal vassals by +3/level.
    • Noble Customs 1 required to upgrade a tribe to a castle.
  • Popular Customs:
    • increases opinion of burghers by +3/level.
  • Religious Customs:
    • increases opinion of clergy by +3/level.
  • Majesty:
    • increases monthly Piety and Prestige gain by +6.2%/level.
    • reduces the Short Reign penalty reign, by considering the reign +0.62 years/level longer than actual (+5 years at level 8).
    • Majesty 5 required for the Imperial Administration law.
  • Tolerance:
    • reduces Wrong Religion and Wrong Culture modifiers by -6.2%/level (max -50% at level 8).
    • Tolerance 3 to 6 unlocks gender equality laws.
  • Legalism:

Research points[edit]

Duke-level and higher rulers generate research points each month in each of the three categories - Military, Economic and Cultural - according to the following formula;

Monthly points = (0.04 *(Learning + Skill) * RankBonus) + BuildingBonus.

where Learning is the ruler's personal Learning attribute; Skill is the ruler's Military, Stewardship or Diplomatic attribute, for Military, Economic and Cultural technology, respectively; RankBonus is 1.0, 1.2 or 1.4 for a Duke, King or Emperor, respectively; and BuildingBonus is the sum of all extra points from all special buildings in the realm (not just demesne). Church Schools produce 0.04 Cultural points per level per month, while Universities produce 0.05 Economic points per level per month. Advanced hospital buildings also generate technology points.

In addition, the Spymaster Study Technology mission will often trigger an event that rewards 50 points in a random category, while the Research missions for the military, economic and religious advisers will less frequently trigger an event that rewards 50 points in the appropriate category. Battles, whether won or lost, generate Military points based on duration and the size of each army (as a fraction of total strength).

The cost to improve technology by one rank is given by the following formula:

Cost = ((100 * Rank) * (1 + AheadPenalty)) * ProgressRemaining

where Rank is the rank (from level 1 to 8) of the new technology; AheadPenalty is 0.006 for every year the current year is ahead of the 'Base Year' of the technology - this is 800 for level 1, 900 for level 2, etc.; and ProgressRemaining is the percentage, from 10% to 100%, left to research in the current technology level. For example, suppose the year is 1150 and we want to go from Military Organization level 4.0 to 5.0 in our capital. The Base Year for level 5 technologies is 1200, so we are 50 years ahead. The cost is (100 * 5) * (1 + 0.006*50) = 650 points. If our capital already had Military Organization at level 4.5, we would only need to spend half as much, or 325 points.

Technology spread[edit]

Technology spreads between provinces that border each other, as well as between provinces in the demesne of the same ruler even if they do not border each other. The rate of growth depends on the degree of the technology lead in the more advanced province. The Spymaster's Study Technology mission also lets technology spread from the target province to the ruler's capital. The other advisors' research missions also increase the speed of spreading, as do the School and University buildings.

The chance of an increase (by 1/10 of a full level) in a particular technology per year is:

6% * (TotalDemesneDifference + TotalNeighborDifference + (TradePostDifference/3) + (SpyIntrigueSkill/10)*TargetProvinceDifference)) * (1 + CouncillorBonus) * (1 + BuildingBonus)


  • TotalDemesneDifference is the sum of the tech lead in all other demesne provinces. For example, if County A has Light Infantry at 1.0, County B has 1.7, C has 2.0 and D has 1.3, the total difference is (0.7 + 1.0 + 0.3) = 2.0, resulting in a (2.0*6% =) 12% chance of increase in County A per year. Demesne counties that are behind do not increase the rate of spread, but do not penalize it either. TotalDemesneDifference is limited to 5, providing a maximum bonus of 30%.
  • TotalNeighborDifference is, similarly, the sum of the tech lead in all neighboring provinces. Neighbors of different religious groups provide only half of their lead. If a county is both a neighbor and in the same demesne, it counts for both TotalDemesneDifference and TotalNeighborDifference.
  • TradePostDifference boosts tech growth in merchant republics.
  • SpyIntrigueSkill applies to a Spymaster using the "Study Technology" mission in a target foreign province.
  • TargetProvinceDifference is the tech difference with the Spymaster's target province.
  • CouncillorBonus is 5% per skill point if the appropriate Councillor is using the Research Tech mission in the province.
  • BuildingBonus is the sum of bonuses from buildings in the province:
    • From cities: +30% for each level of University
    • From temples: +10% and +20% for the first and second levels of School
    • From hospitals: +25% for each of the Library and Pharmacology Laboratory

Starting technology[edit]

Different regions and religious groups start with different levels of technology to represent the varying levels of cultural sophistication and achievement present across Europe and the Middle East during the Middle Ages.

The starting levels in 769 are:

Region Military Economic Cultural
Africa 0.1 0.1 0.1
Eastern Europe 0.1 0.1 0.1
Scandinavia 0.1 0.1 0.1
Steppes 0.1 0.1 0.1
India 0.5 1.0 1.0
Western Europe 0.5 1.0 1.0
Muslim Spain 0.5 1.3 1.3
Middle East (not including Egypt) 0.5 1.5 1.5
Byzantium 1.2 1.5 1.5

These values are averages. Individual provinces randomly vary from the average value by up to 0.5 in either direction.

Later start dates[edit]

Each region has a predefined ending technology for the latest possible start, in 1337. For dates in between, technology takes a weighted average of the starting and ending levels.

CurrentTech = StartTech + (EndTech - StartTech) * ((Current Year - 769) / (1337 - 769))).

Region Military Economic Cultural
Africa 3.0 3.0 3.0
Eastern Europe 3.5 3.5 3.5
Scandinavia 3.5 3.5 3.5
Steppes 3.5 3.5 3.5
India 4.0 4.0 4.0
Western Europe (including all Spain) 5.0 5.0 5.0
Middle East (not including Egypt) 4.5 4.5 4.5
Byzantium 4.5 4.5 4.5


Key technologies[edit]

Military tech boosts army effectiveness.

  • Military Organization boosts retinues and supply limit, and removes pagan defensive attrition at level 4.
  • Shipbuilding 1 provides your first fleet levies (unless you have merchant republics).

Economic tech boosts income and enables buildings that increase army size.

  • Improved Keeps 2 allows constructing the second level of walls in castles, cities, and temples. These walls are a prerequisite for most military buildings.
  • Trade practices 2 and 3 quickly ramp up the number of allowed trade posts per patrician family.
  • Town Infrastructure 2 and Construction 3 enable building Universities in cities and Translation Houses in hospitals, allowing you to generate even more economic technology points.

Culture tech improves vassal management by enabling new laws and improving opinion.

  • Legalism enables new laws.
  • Majesty 5 is required for Imperial Administration. (It may also require Absolute Crown Authority from Legalism 5.)

Strategies for the realm[edit]

Conquer a good county and make it your capital. Rome is often poorly defended.

Use council missions to spread tech your capital. Invite good councilors. Send your spymaster to a location with high tech. Consider having your other councilors use the "study [tech group]" missions, especially while your spymaster is studying technology, since the bonuses are multiplicative.

Spread economic tech throughout the realm. You can encourage tech spread from your capital using trade zones, a spread-out demesne, and council missions.

Have many duke-level vassals, since counts do not generate technology points. With viceroyalties, you can choose vassals with high stewardship and learning skill, although opinion and age are usually more important considerations.

Strategies for research points[edit]

Gain traits that boost multiple attributes such as Diligent , Patient , and Ambitious . See education and focus.

Inherit research points. Arrange for your heir to rule a duchy before you inherit (goes well with feudal elective or open succession). Conversely, if a vassal duke dies without heirs, you get their tech points along with their titles and wealth.

Let special vassals spend their points in your capital. Grant your capital to the Ecumenical Patriarch or a holy order captain who normally holds no counties. Then revoke the county a year later. (If you rule the Byzantine Empire or Restored Roman Empire, you can use a decision to seize Constantinople or Rome, respectively.)

Concentrate research point use on new technologies, since you will gradually gain the others for free. You can see the spread rate by hovering gears in the Tech view (F5) or by hovering the three icons in the province view.

See also[edit]

Special holdings
CapitalEconomyLeviesRevoltTechnologyCultural buildings